A general term used to describe photographs, drawings, paintings, hand
lettering, and the like prepared to illustrate printed matter.
- Author's Alterations (A.A.'s)
- Author or client corrections and/or changes made in type at the proof stages;
these are not due to the printer's error and are therefore chargeable
to the customer. All corrections should be marked in red ink or
pen according to the printer's code of standardized proofreader's
marks; never in soft lead. A.A.'s are expensive and should be
kept to a minimum. See also House Errors (H.E.'s).
- Various methods of securing sections together and/or fastening
them to a cover to form single copies.
An illustration or type is said to bleed when it prints off the edge of
a trimmed page. Bleed illustrations are usually imposed so as to print
beyond the trimmed page size. An illustration may bleed at the head,
front, foot, and/or gutter (back of a page).
- Blind Embossing
Embossed forms that are not inked or foiled.
- Blind Folio
Page number not printed on page.
- See Proof (Blueline).
Creating a polished finish on paper by rubbing with stone or hard smooth
- Camera-ready Art
Material given to the printer that needs no further work before being
passed to the camera department. Camera copy should be clean, free of
glue or trash, flat, and printed in dark ink.
- Camera Service
- Use of a process camera to make photostats, halftones, plates, and other
elements for printing.
- Coated Paper
- Paper coated with clay, white pigments, and a binder.
- Collate (see Gather)
- Column Gutter
Space between two or more columns of type on one page.
The assembling of characters into words, lines, and paragraphs of text
or body matter type for reproduction.
- Continuous Tone
- Image made of non-discernible picture elements that give the
appearance of continuous spectrum of gray values or tones.
Result of added thickness of folded sheets being behind one another in a
folded signature. Outer edges of sheets creep away from back most fold
as more folded sheets are inserted inside the middle.
- Crop Marks
- Marks along the margins of an illustration (or photo) used to indicate the
portion of the illustration to be reproduced.
Elements that cross page boundaries and land on two consecutive pages
Machine for accurately cutting stacks of paper to desired dimensions.
- Cutting Die
- Sharp-edged device usually made of steel rule, to cut paper,
cardboard, etc., on a printing press.
Design cut into metal (mostly brass) for stamping book covers or
- Die Cutting
Cutting shapes in paper using metal rules mounted on a press.
Boring holes in paper so sheets fit over posts of loose leaf binders.
Color reproduction from monochrome original. Keyplate usually printed
in dark color for detail, second plate printed in light flat tints.
- Electronic Composition
- The assembly of characters into words, lines, and paragraphs of text or body
matter with graphic elements in page layout form in digital format
for reproduction by printing.
A process performed after printing to stamp a raised or depressed image
(artwork or typography) into the surface of paper, using engraved metal
embossing dies, extreme pressure, and heat. Embossing styles include
blind, deboss, and foil-embossed.
A price provided to a customer, based on the specifications outlined on
the estimate form; it is normally set prior to the entry of an order and
prices may change if the order specifications are not the same as the
- Appearance of the surface of a paper.
Even with; usually refers to typeset copy.
- Fold Marks
Markings at top edges that show where folds should occur.
Machine used to fold signatures down into sections.
- Folio (Page Number)
- Number of page at top or bottom either centered, flushed left,
or flushed right often with running headline.
In composition, a complete assortment of type in one size and face.
- Four-Color Process
- The four basic colors of ink (yellow, magenta, cyan, and black)
that reproduce full-color photographs of art.
- Gather (Collate)
To assemble or collect sections into single copies of complete books for
- GBC Binding
Plastic comb binding, which allows a publication to lay flat when open.
- Graduated Screen
An area of an image where dots range continuously from one density to
The direction paper fibers run or are arranged.
Space between pages in the printing frame of a book, or inside margin
towards the back or binding edge.
Picture with graduations of tone formed by dots of varying sizes.
- House Errors (H.E.'s)
- Corrections and/or changes made due to errors made by the printer,
particularly in prepress, as opposed to changes made by the author,
client, or editor. Also refers to mistakes made in film negatives,
platemaking, or printing that are not due to the client's error,
addition, or deletion. The cost of H.E.'s are absorbed by the
printer or typesetter. See also Author's Alterations
- Arrangement of pages so that they print correctly on a press sheet and the
pages are in proper order when the sheets are folded.
Extra printed pages inserted loosely into printed pieces.
Extra blank pages inserted loosely into a printed piece after printing.
Describes text copy that is typeset flush to both the left and the right
- One of a number of folds (each containing two pages) that compose
a book or manuscript.
- Line Copy
Any copy that is solid black with no gradations in tone and is suitable
for reproduction without using a halftone screen.
- Make Ready
Process of adjusting final plate on the press to fine tune or modify
To write instructions as on a dummy or proof.
- Mechanical (Paste-up)
Camera ready assembly of all type and design elements with instructions,
ready for the platemaker.
A pattern in a negative resulting from a prescreened picture or photo.
Putting a sequential number on each copy.
A method in which the plate or cylinder transfers an ink image to an
offset or transfer roller, which then transfers the image to stock.
- Over Run
- Surplus of copies printed.
Binding by applying glue along one edge of a stock of sheets.
- Perfect Binding
- A bookbinding technique in which the pages are glued rather than sewn to
the cover; used in the production of paperbacks, small manuals,
telephone books, etc.
Punching small holes or slits in a sheet of paper or cardboard to
facilitate tearing along a desired line.
- Reproduction of type or cuts in metal, plastic, rubber, or other material,
to form a plate bearing a relief, planographic, or intaglio printing
- Points and Picas
In measuring a paper's caliper, one point equals a thousandth of an
inch. In typography, a point is the smallest unit of measurement used
principally for designating type size, one point approximating 1/72 of
an inch and 12 points equaling one pica.
- Proof (Blueline)
- Photographic proof made on light sensitive paper for checking accuracy, layout,
and imposition before plates are made.
- Proof (Galley)
Typeset material before it has been arranged into final page.
- Proof (Press)
- Actual press sheets to show image, tone values, and colors as well as imposition
of frame or press-plate.
- Ragged Right
Typesetting style that is characterized by lines that end in unequal
length, usually lined up flush on one side or the other--example, flush
Five hundred sheets of paper.
- Register Marks
- Crosses or other marks applied to original copy prior to photography used
for achieving perfect alignment (register) between negatives and
Type appearing in white on a black or color background or in a dark area
of a photograph.
- Saddle Stitching (Saddle Binding)
- Binding process for pamphlets or booklets that works by stapling
through the middle fold of the sheets.
- Pressing a mark in a sheet of paper, usually cover stock, to
make folding easier--often necessary when a fold must be made
against the paper's grain.
A sheet of film having lines or other pattern.
- Side Stitching
Stitching where the wire staples pass through the pile of sections or
leaves gathered upon each other and are clinched on the underside.
An area completely covered with ink, or the use of 100% of a given
color. In composition, type set without space (leading) between the
- Spot Color
Small area printed in a second color.
The positioning of negatives before printing plates are made.
A clear shiny ink used to add gloss to printed pieces.
- Velo Binding
Type of binding that uses a flat piece of plastic to hold a
multi-page document together at the spine.
- Fade to white, or small decorative design or illustration.